|Pitcher Filters||Ultraviolet (UV)||Caripur H2O||Reverse Osmosis (RO)|
|Active carbon||Ion Exchangers (IX) Water Softener|
|How it works|
|Granulated activated carbon (GAC) is made of coconut husks that have been heated to a high temperature in the absence of oxygen and then granulated. This increases the surface area of the chemically reactive carbon, allowing it to absorb and adhere to and trap great amounts of certain chemical contaminants in water.|| IX is a process that selectively removes contaminants from water by swapping out ions of similar electrical charges on a resin bed. This way, IX targets specific substances for removal based on their ionic charges. Softeners are a common ion-exchange method, extracting the minerals that cause limescale from hard water.|| Water passes through a quartz tube that is irradiated with UV radiation from a UV lamp. UV radiation kills bacteria and other pathogens by destroying their DNA or RNA.|| Caripur H2O utilizes ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filtration at its core. In UF, hydrostatic pressure or gravity forces a liquid against a hollow fiber threaded membrane used to separate the suspended particles and impurities from water. The membrane is similar to that used in reverse osmosis (RO), but with larger pore sizes.||RO uses a semipermeable membrane that removes dissolved and suspended impurities. High pressure is applied on one side, forcing the water across the membrane and moving from an area of higher impurity concentration to that of a lower one. This process leaves behind contaminants that have larger particle sizes than water molecules.|
|Primary purification mechanism|
Chemical separation based on absorption and physical separation based on the size of the ion exchange surface.
Chemical separation at the ion exchange surface.
Physical damage from UV separation-based radiation.
Physical separation based on size.
Physical separation based on size.
|Removes coarse particles, organic compounds, and pollutants, including chlorine, pesticides, and herbicides.||Softeners reduce water hardness via cation exchange, removing calcium and magnesium for sodium.||Kills or renders dormant water-borne bacteria and viruses, but their dead bodies remain in the water.||Removes bacteria, viruses, cysts, parasites, chlorine, pesticides, metals, and macromolecules larger than the membrane pore size.||Removes bacteria, viruses, cysts, pharmaceuticals, some salts, metals, and pesticides.|
|Contaminants not eliminated|
|Bacteria, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, and heavy metals.||Bacteria and viruses, pharmaceuticals, and suspended solids.||Coarse particles, salts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrates, and heavy metals.||Dissolved salts, arsenic, and fluoride.||VOCs, salts, and metals with small atomic sizes.|
|Time to produce 1 gallon of water|
|90 seconds||90 seconds||270 seconds||6 seconds||45 to 60 minutes|
|System cost (USD)|
|$17 to $70||$20 to $50||$50 to $650||$8,500 to $17,500||$8,000 to $12,000|
|Long-term maintenance and performance|
|The filter cartridges require frequent replacement (from 2 weeks to a month) when they are saturated with contaminants and are no longer effective.||IX resins must be replaced or regenerated, as saturation and clogging compromises service life over time.||The UV lamp requires regular replacements as the bulb gets dimmer. The quartz glass tubes also need to be cleaned to remove algae, scale, and other deposits.||The membranes in Caripur H2O are continually cleaned and are projected to last a minimum of 5 years before minor maintenance is required.||Long-term performance is poor and breakages in the membranes are not easily detected, thus requiring regular replacements.|
Uses the same amount of energy as a 60-watt bulb.
Requires electricity only if tap water does not have enough pressure.
|Sometimes paired with an RO system to remove more contaminants from water.||Generally combined with other purification methods that first filter the water to avoid clogging and damaging IX resin beds.||Sometimes paired with RO to remove dead bacteria from water, or active carbon to improve purification.||Sensors monitor every aspect of the water, the system function, and it has a battery backup and internal pumps in case of power failure.||Always comes with pre-filtration and sometimes post-filtration to remove contaminants that might damage the membrane.|
|Over time, bacteria tend to colonize the surface and go downstream into the filtered water.|
Although a one-time purchase of an active carbon filter is cheap, it is expensive to maintain in the long term due to frequent replacements.
|Certain chemical disinfectants can degrade IX resins, so care must be taken to remove such materials upstream of any IX columns in order to prevent excess resin replacement costs.||Most bacteria can only be targeted with a certain wavelength. Sometimes, the UV tube gets a good shot but won’t kill the bacteria.|
UV also does not work with muddy water; it requires clear water to function.
|UF is not fundamentally different from RO except in terms of the size of molecules that it retains. |
UF also does not produce much wastewater, generally around 2%.
|In an RO system, natural minerals are removed along with contaminants from water. It also rejects a large amount of water in the process,- up to 80%. |
RO membranes are mostly imperfect; they come with breakages and small holes from the get-go.